Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1074 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/06/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay Did you like this example? In the 1930rs, there was a very academic, social, and artistic outbreak that took place in Harlem, New York. During the time the outbreak was called the New Negro Movement named by Alan Locke. Zora Neal Hurston says, But I am not tragically colored (Hurston 2), she is saying that it is not a bad thing that she is colored more like a good thing because she can use that to her advantage. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Feminism In Their Eyes Were Watching God" essay for you Create order In Their Eyes Were Watching God and How it feels to be Colored Me, both works talk about how it is difficult to be oppressed and it is hard to forget about those things. We can tell that in How it Feels to be Colored Me is why Hurston wrote the book. In Their Eyes Are Watching God, Zora Neal Hurston uses three major ideas: the freedom to express feminine voice, the freedom to search for your horizons, and freedom to stray from the accustomed society norms to convey that women want the capability to not be labeled as history says a woman should be. Janiers true voice and her capability to express herself shows us her freedom as a strong woman. When Janie was with Logan and Jody, she could not express herself because Logan and Jody muzzled her opinion, so she could not be heard. On the other hand, when Tea Cake came into Janiers life, he respected her voice and let her express it. Janie loved the conversation and sometimes she thought up good stories on the mule, but Joe had forbidden her to indulge. He didnt want her talking after such trashy people (Hurston 53). When Jody and Janie were married Jody would not let Janie join the conversation because he thought that they were not good enough for her by doing this it restricts her voice from its true potential. As Janie and Jodyrs marriage went on the restriction of Janiers voice just got worse. Time came when she fought back with her tongue as best, she could, but it didnt do her any good. It just made Joe do more. He wanted her submission and hed keep on fighting un til he felt he had it. So gradually, she pressed her teeth together and learned to hush (Hurston 71). As their marriage went on Janie figured out that there was no use in trying to fight back so she gave in to Jodyrs nonsense. Janie does not have any desire to express her voice after this because Jody has restricted her so much. In the Foreword, by Alaine Locke, says, Through You I entered Heaven and Hell knew rapture and despair. This means a woman does not get in to Heaven or Hell unless it is through a man/ They also can not know the emotions like rapture happiness or despair sadness. In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neal Hurston uses the imagery of the horizon a lot. In the novel the horizon is the finish line for Janie, in the bookrs entirety Janie is determined to reach the horizon so she can determine what her real self-worth is. Here Nanny had taken the biggest thing God ever made, the horizonfor no matter how far a person can go the horizon is still way beyond youand pinched it in to such a little bit of a thing that she could tie it about her grandmothers neck tight enough to choke her (Hurston 89). At this point in the book, Janie is mad at Nanny because she says that nanny took away her horizons by telling her how to marry instead of marrying for love but to marry for money. So Ahm back home agin and Ahm satisfied tuh be heah. Ah done been tuh de horizon and back and now Ah kin set heah in mah house and live by comparisons (Hurston 191). Now Janie has reached her horizon and she can say that she has found her true self and is her natural self . In How it Feels to be Colored Me, Hurston says, At certain times I have no race I belong to no race or time, I am the eternal feminine with its string of beads (Hurston . Hurston is saying its not that she does not want to be a woman, she wants the freedom to not be labeled as history says a woman should be but to be able to express your natural state of being. As the story goes on Janie goes from husband to husband and as she is going from husband to husband, she wants the freedom to stray from the accustomed path. For generations and generations women have followed the same rules and now she has enough to courage to do something different no matter how other people judge her or the punishment. What she doin coming back here in dem overhalls? Cant she find no dress to put on?-Wheres dat blue satin dress she left here in?-Betcha he off wid some gal so young she aint even got no hairs-why she dont stay in her class? (Hurston 2). When Janie returns to Eatonville after the death of Tea Cake, she does not act at all like a traditional woman would act and she does not care what anyone thinks because Janie knows that she has found her true self and is one-hundred percent confident in herself. Ah wants things sweet wid mah marriage lak when you sit under a pear tree and think. Ah (Hurston 24). This is when Janie talk to Nanny about the dec ision to marry Logan and how Janie does not love him. Janie wants her life to be under a pear tree and to be in love, but she never stops dreaming which is why she is different than other women. In the Foreword, by Alaine Locke says Douglas writings are a documenting of the feminine heart and that woman want the experience of love (Locke 17). He is saying that women do not want to marry for money, they want a real experience of what love is. In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neal Hurston portrays that women want the freedom to determine their actions and words without being told what to do or say by men. We can understand her work because she relates it to a relative topic to todays world. We can now understand what oppressing someoners voice does to a person and to avoid doing that to people in the world today.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Now that you know how to count from one to one hundred in Italian, how do you count from one hundred and up? These numbers, while a bit more complex, are useful to know for higher-priced items (learn about how to talk about prices here), saying the year, and being able to talk about items in large quantities. While the pattern is straightforward, there are some differences to highlight. For example, there is no Italian equivalent for the English way of saying Ã¢â¬Å"eleven hundredÃ¢â¬ or Ã Ã¢â¬Å"twelve hundred.Ã¢â¬ Instead, you would say Ã¢â¬Å"millecento - 1100Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"milleduecento -1200.Ã¢â¬ Writing Numbers in Italian When youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing numbers in Italian, English and Italian have a few differences. First, the function of periods and commas is reversed. Therefore, the number 1.000 one thousand (or mille in Italian) and 1,5 one point five or one and five tenths. In Italian, that would be Ã¢â¬Å"uno virgola cinque.Ã¢â¬ The indefinite article is not used with Ã¢â¬Å"cento - hundredÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mille - thousand,Ã¢â¬ but it is used with Ã¢â¬Å"milione - million.Ã¢â¬ cento favole - a hundred fablesmille notti - a thousand nightsun milione di dollari - a million dollars Ã¢â¬Å"CentoÃ¢â¬ has no plural form, but Ã¢â¬Å"milleÃ¢â¬ has the plural form Ã¢â¬Å"mila.Ã¢â¬ cento lire - 100 liraduecento lire - 200 liramille lire - 1000 liraduemila lire - 2000 liratremila euro - 3000 euros FUN FACT: Lira was the old form of currency in Italy. L. is the abbreviation for lira/lire. This is where the common expression Ã¢â¬Å"Non ho una lira - I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any moneyÃ¢â¬ comes from in Italian. Milione (plural milioni) and miliardo (plural miliardi) require the preposition Ã¢â¬Å"diÃ¢â¬ when they occur directly before a noun. In Italia ci sono 57 milioni di abitanti. - In Italy, there are 57 million inhabitants.Il governo ha speso molti miliardi di dollari. - The government has spent many billions of dollars. Saying the Year You can also use these numbers to say the year. Ã LetÃ¢â¬â¢s use the year 1929 as an example. The number youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to start with will be the biggest. 1000 - mille Then, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll use 900 - novecento Finally, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll cover the last two numbers 29 - ventinove All of that together makes: millenovecento ventinove Here are some other years as examples: 2010 - duemila dieci2000 - duemila1995 - millenovecento novantacinque1984 - millenovecento ottanta quattro A few things to note: -- When youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about years in the 21st century, you use Ã¢â¬Å"duemilaÃ¢â¬ and NOT Ã¢â¬Å"due milleÃ¢â¬ , like in duemila quattro (2004). Ã Ã -- If you want to just say Ã¢â¬Ë84 instead of 1984, you would say Ã¢â¬Å"lÃ¢â¬â¢ottantaquattro.Ã¢â¬ -- If you want to say Ã¢â¬Å"In 1984Ã¢â¬ , you would use the articulated preposition Ã¢â¬Å"nellÃ¢â¬â¢84,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"durante lÃ¢â¬â¢84Ã¢â¬ before the numbers. Italian Numbers One Hundred and Greater 100 cento 1.000 mille 101 centouno 1.001 milleuno 150 centocinquanta 1.200 milleduecento 200 duecento 2.000 duemila 300 trecento 10.000 diecimila 400 quattrocento 15.000 quindicimila 500 cinquecento 100.000 centomila 600 seicento 1.000.000 un milione 700 settecento 2.000.000 due milioni 800 ottocento 1.000.000.000 un miliardo 900 novecento 2.000.000.000 due miliardi
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The transformation in relationships is truly a miracle. It is beautiful when God is integrated into the connecting of one-another. The structure of a healthy and strong relationship is based on communication, supporting, and learning to forgive each other. Although, the topic of relationships is a little challenging for me because I am single and I have been single for a long time. My experience went from a teenager to a mother. For the last eighteen years I have dated off and on without commitments. The connections that I endured did not last because of different reasons. As a single parent, working three jobs, and a student, I never have the energy or focus to build or create something beautiful with someone; however, I also feel I have not met the right person. Nevertheless, when I do meet the man God has for me, I will honor the relationship and do everything in my power to stay in love every day. When I see couples that are in love, it gives me hope that someday I will experienc e that happiness. When I see couples that are bickering at each other, I remind myself of the happiness of being single. According to the text, regarding the ice cube tray, the disagreements are common in marriages. The smallest annoyance is enough to initiate a battle. The battle will not last if there is love. The disagreement becomes lessened when the reaction of love is displayed in a manner of trust and kindness, especially when God is at heart. Divorce versus commitment per the read,Show MoreRelatedHistory, Religion Has Ruled Villages, Cities, And Empires1766 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesKincaid Dwyer Roland Millare Honors Theology III 12.1.17 Eucharistic Miracle Throughout history, religion has ruled villages, cities, and empires. Thousands of laws were created as a result of religious beliefs. Many have fled countries to escape religious persecution and many have died in pursuit of their ideology. While these individuals have stood firm in faith, others have lived a life of doubt and uncertainty. Most surprising, however, would be the hesitation of belief in those monks and priestsRead MoreJane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte1125 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshears RochesterÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. This was not some sort of random occurrence or miracle, but it is the productivity of nature. In some way his voice expresses JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s inner being, speaking for JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s self not only her emotions but also for her deepest goals and aspirations. St. John represents suppression, onus, and an approach expressing the morality of complete grace. St. John forced Jane into to his own realm of grace. Jane never truly acknowledges why she left Rochester in the first p lace. To the readerRead More Dealing With Death Essay1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof undergoing a serious life-altering incident, one often experiences the feeling of a paradigm shift. It is amazing to see how our perspectives of the world shift when forced to reflect on what is truly important. Such is the way with death. Being near death causes a sharp realization of what is truly important in life--love of family and friends, faith in God, and making the world a better place to live in--and enables one to not merely accept this, but apply it to their life as well. All thoseRead MoreDiscipleship : The Overarching Purpose Of The Christian Discipleship1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexpanded upon. Centrality of Christ When Jesus is our central focus, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s vision will have the tendency to become clearer. Jesus did particular things in precise ways. If one will take the time to examine those actions, personal discipleship can truly come alive in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There is nothing more important than using the words and actions of Jesus to get a glimpse of true discipleship. Paul stated in Romans 11:36, Ã¢â¬Å"For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be gloryRead MoreA Dolls House, Drama Analysis, Realism and Naturalism1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessocial problems that many face but never speak of. Since Ibsen s time, women have made great strides in gaining the choice to determine their role in relation to the family and society. A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House uses the character of Nora Helmer to show the transformation that takes place from dependent house wife to independent adult. The theme of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, a woman s right to individual self-fulfillment, was considered highly subversive in an age when women were not allowed to conduct business withoutRead MoreThe Blind Side( Michael Oher)1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheir team. Had these coaches the power to design a prototypical left tackle, OherÃ¢â¬â¢s six-foot-five, 330-pound frame would have been pretty close to their model. And yet the fact that he was even still at high school was, in itself, nothing short of a miracle. The focal point of Michael LewisÃ¢â¬â¢s The Blind Side is the story of OherÃ¢â¬â¢s transition from a teenager so neglected by society that the Memphis school board canÃ¢â¬â¢t really account for his academic record to an eighteen-year-old college recruit with theRead MoreBlade Runner By C. Jung1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestranscending a comfortable but rather fruitless attitude to life and is pushed towards taking steps necessary to win the power struggle against its shadow. The hero myth or a hero s journey, as one of the most popular archetypal patterns of transformation, has been presented in many different lights, accordingly to the culture and the current social condition. It does, however, always follow the number of precise stages, as described by J. Campbell (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hero s_journey):Read MoreSummary Of Pablo Nerudas The Egoist1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn every person, an ego which interacts with the world appears to exist; hence, languages use the basic pronouns, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"you.Ã¢â¬ However, what can one truly classify as the self? Cognitive scientist Bruce Hood defines an illusion as, Ã¢â¬Å"[the] experience of something that is not what it seems.Ã¢â¬ By this definition, he classifies the self as illusory; humans naturally experience their self, but it does not actually exist. Similarly, in Pablo NerudaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Egoist, Neruda contrasts the ego with the naturalRead More Use of Bathroom Scenes in t he Film Pulp Fiction Essay1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVince is quite obviously attracted to Mia, and Mia seems willing to spend more time with him. He has to decide whether to stay longer and risk taking advantage of MarsellusÃ¢â¬â¢ wife or to leave immediately, wishing her a good night and ending his relationship with her. This creates tension and allows the audience to consider their own moral standpoint in regards to the situation. The second questioning of ethics that occurs in this scene begins to take place moments after Vince leaves the bathroomRead MoreThe Important Elements Of The Christian Worldview And Specific Topics Essay1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreflect them as well. The root cause of human problems is sin. Sin is the root cause because we get tempted to do the wrong thing by the devil. People easily get tempted by the devil to turn away from God and chose to do bad. Sin is what destroys our relationship with God and the devil is happy that he has tempting people into doing something that God would be ashamed of. Sin comes from the devil so that people fall from doing the right thing and following the path of God. Jesus JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ true identity
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Apply Kohut theory linked to the life of Pablo Escabar. Answer: The theory of Kohut is based on Freuds structural theory of identity, ego and superego but later he formed a new idea of tripartite that is the three-part self. Kohut demonstrates how the psychoanalysis focuses on the instinctual motivation, internal conflicts mingled with self-psychology and emphasises on the alteration of the self (Kohut, 2013). the model of narcissism is used to describe a mans suppression of his feelings of inferior self-esteem and self-laudation to eliminate the sense of unworthiness. In his book The Analysis of the Self: A Systematic Analysis of the Treatment of the Narcissistic Personality Disorders Kohut has added this self object theme of the alter ego or twin ship to be a part of a broader aspect of human identification with all (Kohut, 2014). Kohuts self object theory can be related to the life and work of a renowned criminal personality of Pablo Escobar. From his very childhood he was known for his ambition and self laudation. His mothers dream that his son once would be the president of Columbia manipulated and guided Escobar all his life. He was a criminal on the one hand and a Robin hood for the citizen of Columbia (Teicholz, 2013). The alter ego in his self, made him the drug lord of Columbia and the leader of a criminal organization that had shaken the economy as well as politics of America. he ruled his vast empire of drug smuggling and murdered innumerable people around the globe. He controlled the drug supply chain of Medellin from where he supplied cocaine to USA. He also controlled the crime and indulged into bribery. He bribed all the judges and police officers and politicians to continue his business otherwise got them murdered. On the other part he was a caring son, husband and father and nobody in his family believed that Escobar could be such a ruthless. He spent millions of dollars for schools, parks, stadiums and churches in Columbia. To the Columbian Citizen, he was giving back his earnings to his community. This split personality in Pablo Escobar thus supports the theory of Kohath and records its validity (Anderson, 2013). References: Anderson, J. W. (2013). Recent psychoanalytic theorists and their relevance to psychobiography: Winnicott, Kernberg, and Kohut.The Annual of Psychoanalysis, V. 31: Psychoanalysis and History, 79. Kohut, H. (2013).The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personality disorders. University of Chicago Press. Kohut, H. (2014). Introspection, empathy, and the semicircle of mental health.Lichtenberg, Bornstein, Silver, eds,, 81-100. Teicholz, J. G. (2013). Self and Relationship: Kohut, Loewald, and the Postmodems.Progress in Self Psychology, V. 14: The World of Self Psychology,14, 267.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Levi Strauss Co Essay Levi Strauss Co. (LSCO) is a privately held clothing company known worldwide for its Levis brand of denim jeans. It was founded in 1853 when Levi Strauss came from Buttenheim, Franconia, (Kingdom of Bavaria) to San Francisco, California to open a west coast branch of his brothers New York dry goods business. Although the company began producing denim overalls in the 1870s, modern jeans were not produced until the 1920s. The company briefly experimented (in the 1970s) with employee ownership and a public stock listing, but remains owned and controlled by descendants and relatives of Levi Strauss four nephews. Organization Levi Strauss Co. is a worldwide corporation organized into three geographic divisions: Levi Strauss Americas (LSA), based in the San Francisco headquarters; Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa (LSEMA), based in Brussels; and Asia Pacific Division (APD), based in Singapore. The company employs a staff of approximately 10,500 people worldwide, and owns and develops a few brands. Levis, the main brand, was founded in 1873 in San Francisco, specializing in riveted denim jeans and different lines of casual and street fashion.  Levis, under the leadership of Jay Walter Haas Sr. Peter Haas Sr. , Paul Glasco and George P. Simpkins Sr. , expanded the firms clothing line by adding new fashions and models, including stone-washed jeans through the acquisition of Great Western Garment Co. (GWG), a Canadian clothing manufacturer. GWG was responsible for the introduction of the modern stone washing technique, still in use by Levi Strauss. Mr. Simpkins is credited with the c ompanys record paced expansion of its manufacturing capacity from fewer than 16 plants to more than 63 plants in the United States from 1964 through 1974. We will write a custom essay sample on Levi Strauss Co specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Levi Strauss Co specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Levi Strauss Co specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Perhaps most impressive, however, was Levis expansion under Simpkins was accomplished without a single unionized employee as a result of Levis and the Haas families strong stance on human rights and Simpkins use of pay for performance manufacturing at the sewing machine operator level up. As a result, Levis plants were perhaps the highest performing, best organized and cleanest textile facilities of their time. Levis even piped in massive amounts of air conditioning for the comfort of Levis workers into its press plants, which were known in the industry to be notoriously hot. 004 saw a sharp decline of GWG in the face of global outsourcing, so the company was closed and the Edmonton manufacturing plant shut down.  The Dockers brand, launched in 1986 which is sold largely through department store chains, helped the company grow through the mid-1990s, as denim sales began to fade. Dockers were introduced into Europe in 1993. Levi Strauss attempted to sell the Dockers division in 2004 to relieve part of the companys $2 billion outstanding debt.  Launched in 2003, Levi Strauss Signature features jeanswear and casualwear. 6] In November 2007, Levis released a mobile phone in co-operation with ModeLabs. Many of the phones cosmetic attributes are customisable at the point of purchase.  Company Background In 1853, Bavarian immigrant Levi Strauss founded Levi Strauss and Company which is now the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest brand-name apparel marketers with sales in more than a hundred and ten countries. At present, there is no other company with an equivalent international presence in the jeans and casual pants markets. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market-leading apparel products are sold under the brands of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s, Dockers and Levi Strauss Signatures. It was in 1873 when the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first jeans, were born when Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis, a tailor from Nevada, patented the process of putting rivets in pants to make it stronger. The LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s trademark is currently one of the most recognized in the world and is registered in more than a hundred and sixty countries. From a company with fifteen salespeople, two plants, and almost no business east of the Mississippi in 1946, the organization grew in thirty years to include a sales force of more than 22,000, with 50 plants and offices in 35 countries. 7] The company took on multi-billion dollar debt in February 1996 to help finance a series of leveraged stock buyouts among family members. Shares in Levi Strauss stock are not publicly traded; the firm is today owned almost entirely by indirect descendants and relatives of Levi Strauss, whose four nephews inherited the San Francisco dry goods firm after their uncles death in 1902.  The corporation s bonds are traded publicly, as are shares of the companys Japanese affiliate, Levi Strauss Japan K. K. After more than two decades of family ownership, rumors of a possible public stock offering were floated in the media in July 2007.  Values and Vision We are the embodiment of the energy and events of our time, inspiring people from all walks of life with a pioneering spirit. We are the embodiment of the energy and events of our times, inspiring people with a pioneering spirit. We believe that business can drive profits through principles, and that our values as a company and as individuals give us a competitive advantage. Empathy Ã¢â¬â walking in other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes? Empathy begins with paying close attention to the world around us. We listen and respond to the needs of our customers, employees and other stakeholders. Originality Ã¢â¬â being authentic and innovative? The pioneering spirit that started in 1873 with the very first pair of blue jeans still permeates all aspects of our business. Through innovative products and practices, we break the mold. Integrity Ã¢â¬â doing the right thing ? Integrity means doing right by our employees, brands, company and society as a whole. Ethical conduct and social responsibility characterize our way of doing business. Courage Ã¢â¬â standing up for what we believe? It takes courage to be great. Courage is the willingness to tell the truth and to challenge hierarchy, accepted practice and conventional wisdom. It means standing by our convictions and acting on our beliefs. Levi Strauss Co. has been innovating since 1873, the year we created the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first blue jeans. Throughout its long history it has inspired change in the marketplace, the workplace and the world. Its worldwide leadership team, which includes the CEO and 11 executives, sets the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall direction and is responsible for all major strategic, financial and operational decisions. Its company leaders around the world aspire to create the most innovative and relevant products in the marketplace, while upholding its values of empathy, originality, integrity and courage. Levi Strauss Co. prides itself on growing talent from within, and many of its senior-most leaders have risen through the company ranks over the past two or three decades. But to maintain its lead in the fast-changing fashion industry its leadership team also includes executives who bring leading-edge expertise and new ideas from other consumer companies and other industries.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
The Role of Native Language Phonology in the Production of L2 Contrasts by Eckman and Iverson In their article, Eckman and Iverson (2013) present the research conducted to confirm or deny particular hypotheses regarding the acquisition of the contrast between English [s] and [ÃÆ'] among native speaking Koreans and Japanese. The authors provide adequate literature research and explain the background, clearly identify the topic and hypotheses, describe the study itself and discuss its findings; although the article does have some drawbacks, it is still a well-written one.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Native Language Phonology in the Production of L2 ContrastsÃ¢â¬ by Eckman and Iverson specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Summary of the Article The study by Eckman and Iverson (2013) focuses on the way how the contrast between [s] and [ÃÆ'] (as in English words sip versus ship, for instance) is manifested in the native languages of the participants. Although in both languages, the pho nes [s] and [ÃÆ'] are present, and both in Korean and Japanese /s/ is pronounced as [ÃÆ'] before the high front vocoids, the significant difference can be observed. While this rule is allophonic in Korean ([s] and [ÃÆ'] are distinguished as the allophones of /s/), it is neutralizing in Japanese (the contrast between these two sounds is merged). In both languages, s-palatalization can be observed but it is manifested in different ways. Considering all of this, Eckman and Iverson (2013) state that Korean and Japanese are expected to have different paths in acquiring the contrast between [s] and [ÃÆ'], as well as make different types of mistakes. In other words, the mistakes and the way, in which every participant will acquire the contrast, are predictable due to the character of the same contrast in their native languages. The authors assume that Korean participants will apply the rule of perceiving [s] and [ÃÆ'] as allophones of /s/ to English words, which, as a consequence, wil l lead to errors. Japanese, on the contrary, will apply the rules of their own language, which result in other errors. As the authors conclude, Korean participants will make so-called NL transfer errors when /s/ is pronounced as [ÃÆ'] before high front vowels while Japanese participants will make hypercorrection errors when /s/ is pronounced as [s] even when it should be pronounced as [ÃÆ']. On the basis of these statements, hypotheses are created. To test those, the authors have chosen 49 learners of English, 23 of whom are Japanese and 26 of whom are Koreans. To gather data, the stimuli of 90 words and a program created in MATLAB have been used. The last one was needed to communicate with the participants: show a set of pictures and give commands, such as Wait or Speak, for example. The data was recorded at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and after that it was transmitted to the Ohio State University where the assistants who received it knew nothing about the hypotheses. In the end, the hypotheses turned out to be correct.Advertising Looking for book review on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Critique of the Article To start with, Eckman and Iverson (2013) clearly initiate the topic, tell why the study is important and prove that the same issue has not been addressed yet. Besides, the article has a precise structure and is organized conveniently. It is easy to navigate, even though the article is quite long. The introduction is not lengthy and contains all important ideas of the study, which are discussed briefly and laconically. The background part is rather important: it provides both good literature research showing what has already been done on this topic and explains particular characteristics of Korean and Japanese languages, which are needed for the study. It should be noticed that only relevant characteristics are provided, without any redundant information. The s tudy is described clearly and in details. No questions have arisen regarding the way in which the study was carried out or how the participants were chosen. Additionally, the level of language of the respondents is indicated. As for the research itself, it was conducted wisely. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ aim was indeed to test hypotheses, not just confirm them. All data gathered during the study was transmitted to assistants who knew nothing about the hypotheses created by the authors. Hence, the final conclusion was drawn based on bare facts, without any bias. However, the study also has several drawbacks. First of all, specialized terminology usually is not identified, which is why an individual without more or less deep knowledge in the topic will need to conduct additional research to define unknown words and concepts. Secondly, while the research itself is described in details, the methodology is not clearly determined. The article does not tell about the research method or research d esign, for example. Finally, no limitations or constraints of the study are identified, as well as no directions for the further research are suggested. For example, knowing how the contrast between [s] and [ÃÆ'] is acquired among native speaking Koreans and Japanese, the authors could have suggested what other aspects of the same languages should be investigated or what other languages should be taken into account. Still, all of the drawbacks mentioned above are insignificant and do not deny the importance of the study conducted by Eckman and Iverson (2013). The article can serve as a strong base for further research and has already been cited in several related works.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Native Language Phonology in the Production of L2 ContrastsÃ¢â¬ by Eckman and Iverson specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Eckman, F., Iverson, G. K. (2013). The Role of Native Lang uage Phonology in the Production of L2 Contrasts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(1), 67-92.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Should managers try to eliminate or to encourage the expression of organisational conflict Explore your reasons - Essay Example A clever manager will encourage organisational conflict only if it is in the shape of a disagreement. A disagreement is a difference in opinion among two or more persons. It arises as a result of differing personal view points. Disagreements occur frequently between workers within an organisation, and as they do not affect organisational effectiveness, they are looked upon as healthy outlets of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal beliefs and opinions. Disagreements usually end up amicably, without needing intervention by third parties. The intelligent manager should monitor the progress of a disagreement carefully to ensure that it does not worsen to have direct effects on the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and their capacity and zeal to work properly (Cram et al.). A shrewd manager should try and eliminate, or when not possible, address and resolve organisational conflicts quickly. If this is not done, the organisation stands to face many bad consequences. The first bad consequence is higher employee turnover. One of the disputing workers could resign, which will need the organisation pay termination costs, and also incur expenses to find and train a new replacement worker. The second bad consequence is that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s working environment becomes tense and heavy with stress. Since the conflict matter is not discussed (let alone solved), an atmosphere heavy with lack of trust, anxiety and apprehension is created. Such an unpleasant atmosphere acts adversely on workers, causing them to develop passive-aggressive behaviour patterns. In addition, the manager who cannot solve conflicts swiftly and effectively fails to inspire trust and confidence in workers. Such a set of circumstances badly hits the reputation of the organisation, c ausing it to face business losses, and making it very hard to recruit new employees and prevent existing employees from leaving. The third and most serious consequence is a distinct loss